Science involves a particular way of knowing that includes relying on empirical evidence, logical arguments, skepticism, and peer review. Scientific ideas are revised over time as new evidence becomes available.
Benefits and costs of scientific research and technological innovation include consequences that
are long‐term as well as short‐term, and indirect as well as direct.
Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying explanations.
Energy occurs in different forms and is necessary to do work or to cause change.
All organisms share similar characteristics and basic needs, but they also have differences that allow
people to identify, describe and classify them.
The Earth System is composed of and part of a multitude of systems, which cycle and interact
resulting in dynamic equilibrium.
v How have science and technology affected the quality of life?are all living things the same and how are they different?
v How is light energy for the sun transformed into energy and how do all organisms use stored chemical energy to perform the functions necessary for life?
v What does science tell us about evolutionary biology, the unity and diversity of organisms and how present populations are changing?
v How have How are all living things the same and how are they different?
v How do Earth’s systems interact?
Urban Agriculture (V42)
PLSC.01 Understand the structure and significance of plant agriculture systems
· PLSC.01.01 Determine the meaning and importance of Plant Systems
· PLSC.01.01.a Define plant science and plant systems
· PLSC.01.01.b Explain the importance of plant systems locally, nationally and globally
· PLSC.01.01.c Integrate concepts of plant science into other pathways/ agriculture
· PLSC.01.01.d Apply plant/ crop science/ system in a career pathway
· PLSC.01.02 Understand historical and future trends in plant systems
· PLSC.01.02.a Determine important historical trends in plant systems
· PLSC.01.02.b Describe evolution and technological advances in plant systems
· PLSC.01.02.c Analyze trends (population, societal, income, health, environmental) and their impact on plant
· PLSC.01.02.d Predict future trends in plant systems
· PLSC.01.03 Understand plant production industry segments
· PLSC.01.03.a Define plant system industry segments (seed producer, farmer/producer, processor, retailer)
· PLSC.01.03.b Describe the interrelationship of processing segments
· PLSC.01.03.c Evaluate the impact of a change in markets on the plant systems industry
· PLSC.01.04 Understand the distribution channels of the plant agriculture industry and relate these to the efficiencies
· of production
· PLSC.01.04.a Define Wholesalers, Local Markets/Direct Markets (CSA), Retailers, Governments/Institutional
· (School Lunch and Prison Lunch), Restaurant (Catering)/Hotel, Fast Food
· PLSC.01.04.c Illustrate the impact of the distribution channels
· PLSC.01.04.d Design a new distribution channel (vertical integration)
· PLSC.01.4.b Describe the movement of products through channels
PLSC.02 Understand issues and trends in the plant systems pathway
· PLSC.02.01 Understand and describe sustainable agriculture
· PLSC.02.01.a Explain sustainable agriculture and define objectives and strategies
· PLSC.02.01.b Describe sustainable agriculture practices and compare the ecological effects of traditional
· agricultural practices with those of sustainable agriculture
· PLSC.02.01.c Prepare a plan for an agricultural enterprise that involves practices in support of sustainable
· PLSC.02.01.d Implement a plan for an agricultural enterprise that involves practices in support of sustainable
· PLSC.02.02 Understand the role of biotechnology in plant systems
· PLSC.02.02.a Define biotechnology and its impact on agriculture
· PLSC.02.02.b Recognize some current uses in biotechnology in plant systems (i.e. round-up ready corn, sugar beets,
· PLSC.02.02.c Develop a management plan for the local agricultural industry incorporating new plant system
· biotechnology methods
· PLSC.02.02.d Predict new developments in biotechnology likely to affect the agricultural industry
· PLSC.02.03 Understand alternative crops and the importance of crop diversity in plant systems
· PLSC.02.03.a Identify alternative crops used in agriculture
· PLSC.02.03.b Explain the importance of crop diversity as a risk management method
· PLSC.02.03.c Explain non-traditional uses of alternative crops (i.e. soy based-artificial meat and dairy products)
· PLSC.02.03.d Evaluate how alternative crops can help meet world food demand
· PLSC.02.04 Understand organic plant production and the impact of organic production on plant systems industry
· PLSC.02.04.a Describe the difference between organic and natural foods
· PLSC.02.04.b Identify and explain the standards used by the USDA to certify organic food
· PLSC.02.04.c Analyze how organic food production can be a niche market in agriculture
· PLSC.02.04.d Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of organic production
· PLSC.02.05 Understand community and social responsibility as it relates to plant systems
· PLSC.02.05.a Identify the social responsibilities of agriculturalists
· PLSC.02.05.b Evaluate the difference between social responsibility and public perception
· PLSC.02.05.c Analyze legal issues associated with social responsibilities in agriculture
· PLSC.02.05.d Develop a management plan for agriculturalists to meet social responsibilities and public desires
PLSC.03 Understand plant biology and apply principles in a plant systems production setting
· PLSC.03.01 Describe and utilize plant classification systems
· PLSC.03.01.a Explain and justify the systems used to classify plants
· PLSC.03.01.b Compare and contrast the hierarchical classification of agricultural plants
· PLSC.03.01.c Classify agricultural plants according to the hierarchical classification system, life cycles, plant use,
· and as monocots or dicots
· PLSC.03.02 Identify plants according to different methods of classification and identification
· PLSC.03.02.a Identify plant structures and functions and explain systems used to classify plants
· PLSC.03.02.b Identify agriculturally important plants by common names
· PLSC.03.02.c Identify agriculturally important plants by scientific names
· PLSC.03.02.d Classify agricultural plants according to the hierarchical classification system, life cycles, plant use
· and as monocotyledons or dicotyledons
· PLSC.03.03 Understand plant growth and development
· PLSC.03.03.a Distinguish growth processes of plants
· PLSC.03.03.b Define life span and relate it to living condition; explain the stages of life
· PLSC.03.03.c Analyze the growth factors that affect production enterprises
· PLSC.03.03.d Explore the role that humans have in each of the life stages of agriculturally important plants
· PLSC.03.04 Understand cell structure and function
· PLSC.03.04.a Describe the basics of a plant cell and describe the cellular organelles and their functions
· PLSC.03.04.b Identify and explain DNA structure and replication processes
· PLSC.03.04.c Diagram and label the cell cycle (mitosis and meiosis) and have understanding of each phase
· PLSC.03.05 Understand the anatomy and function of plants parts
· PLSC.03.05.a Identify the components and functions of flowers, stems, leaves, and roots
· PLSC.03.05.b Explain the role flowers, stems, leaves, and roots play in overall plant health
· PLSC.03.05.c Apply the knowledge of flower, stem, leaves, and root structures to plant breeding, production, and
· PLSC.03.05.d Utilize plant anatomy to identify and classify plants and determine the adaptability of plants to the
· plant environment
· PLSC.03.06 Describe photosynthesis and respiration and impact on plant production
· PLSC.03.06.a Explain the basic processes of photosynthesis and respiration and their importance on earth
· PLSC.03.06.b Explain the requirements necessary for photosynthesis and respiration to occur and identify the
· products and byproducts of each process
· PLSC.03.06.c Explain the light dependent and light independent reactions that occur during photosynthesis and
· explain the stages of respiration
· PLSC.03.06.d Perform experiments in the greenhouse testing light duration on overall plant development
· PLSC.03.07 Understand plant processes and impact on production
· PLSC.03.07.a Identify the processes of transpiration and translocation
· PLSC.03.07.b Explain the movement of nutrients through the plant processes
· PLSC.03.07.c Describe signs of proper and improper physiological plant processes
· PLSC.03.08 Describe the processes of plant reproduction and replication
· PLSC.03.08.a Discuss the importance of plant propagation and explain the difference between sexual and asexual
· propagation methods
· PLSC.03.08.b Describe how to successfully plant seeds, use stem cutting propagation, and use grafting propagation
· PLSC.03.08.c Produce plants using various propagation techniques
· PLSC.03.08.d Conduct an experiment showing how plant environment affects reproduction
· PLSC.03.09 Describe the impact of plant genetics on plant production practices
· PLSC.03.09.a Define principles of inheritance and genetic terms
· PLSC.03.09.b Describe how improving plant genetics can improve plant production
· PLSC.03.09.c Diagram and explain how characteristics are inherited (punnet square)
· PLSC.03.09.d Explain how plant genetics impacts cultural reproductive practices (i.e. Cuttings, grafting, seed
· production, cross-pollination)
PLSC.04 Describe processes and techniques of plant environmental management
· PLSC.04.01 Understand plant environment and impact on plant growth and development
· PLSC.04.01.a Describe the effects air, temperature, nutrients, light and water have on plant metabolism and growth
· PLSC.04.01.b Determine the optimal air, temperature, nutrients, light and water conditions for plant optimal
· plant growth
· PLSC.04.01.c Describe plant responses to changes in the environment
· PLSC.04.01.d Design, implement and evaluate a growing plan to maintain optimal conditions for plant growth
· PLSC.04.02 Identify and describe different growth promotants and regulators used in Plant Systems
· PLSC.04.02.a Identify growth promotants and regulators and their uses in production
· PLSC.04.02.b Describe the impact of growth promotants and regulators on the plant system
· PLSC.04.02.c Create a management plan using growth regulators and growth promotants
· PLSC.04.02.d Compare different types of actions of growth promotants and regulators
· PLSC.04.03 Utilize nutrient identification and management in plant systems
· PLSC.04.03.a Recognize essential nutrients and their roles in growth
In accordance with Board PolicyIKA-R Arapahoe campus has developed the following grading practices.
Arapahoe Campus Grading Practices
The goal of all teachers is to move all students toward mastery of the standards taught.
The goal of every student is to learn material by means that utilize his/her dominant learning style, and to build strategies that strengthen weaker learning styles.
1. Relative Weight of Grading Categories
The faculty and staff at Arapahoe Campus will use the following guidelines for the relative weighting of categories used to determine grades.
Student organization, leadership activities, and participation will count for no more than 5% of the overall grade.
Professionalism grade for technical education courses will meet the industry standards of the identified technical course. This category will count for no more than 5% of the student’s overall grade.
Assignments in the “Preparation and Production” category will count no more than 15% of the student’s overall grade.
Assignments in the Formative category, such as quizzes, will count no more than 20% of the student’s overall grade.
Assignments in the Summative category, such as test, will count at least 80% of the student’s overall grade.
The Arapahoe Campus Relative Weighting Practice is intended to be consistent with the following definitions and philosophies:
Preparation and productions refers to grading of non-academic factors or, items that, although essential to learning, are not specifically part of the curriculum for a particular subject area. Examples include (but are not limited to) effort, participation, homework and/or practice assignments assessed for completion, behavior, timeliness, attendance, tardiness. Teachers provide the support necessary to maintain/improve these skills but the grading of these items should have minimal impact on the overall academic grade.
Formative assignments refer to items that are designed to determine whether students are learning what is being taught. Formative assessments guide instructional decisions by revealing to what extent students are learning.
Summative assignments refer to items that are designed to determine student mastery of curriculum. They should be given after students have had several Formative opportunities that include detailed feedback related to performance.
Many assessments have both Formative and Summative characteristics.
Teachers are encouraged to use a variety of formats for both Formative and Summative assessments.
Feedback to students should be frequent and timely.
Work done towards the end of the grading period should have greater influence on a student’s grade than work done early in the grading period. The relative weight of any culminating activity (including final exams) should be consistent with this idea. The overall academic grade should reflect progress made through out the term of instruction.
2. Late Work
The faculty and staff at Arapahoe Campus will accept late work from students in accordance with the following guidelines:
A. Assignments in the “preparation and production” category must be turned in on time. Teachers are not expected or required to accept late work in this category. Failure to submit work in this category may result in a “zero” grade.
B. Assignments in the Formative and Summative categories will be accepted late as follows:
a. Late work will be accepted when it is submitted within the grading period.
b. Late work will receive 100% of original credit.
C. A student with special circumstances may petition to establish alternate individualized due dates agreed upon by the teacher and student (parents and administration optional participation). Extensions to original due dates are subject to teacher discretion.
Note: Infinite Campus grade books are available until the end of the school year for all grading periods for that year. After the end of the school year, a grade change forms are available.
The Arapahoe Campus Late Work Practice should not be used to compromise the following sound educational practices:
1. Students are expected to take tests, make classroom presentations, and/or demonstrate mastery and competence through performances when they are scheduled. The Late Work Practice does not grant students an implied extension simply because they feel unprepared.
2. The best educational practice is for students to complete work to the best of their ability and to submit this work on the due date. Additional interventions and consequences may be appropriate for students who are habitually late with assignments.
3. Extensions for due dates should be requested in advance. Asking for an extension on or after the due date is not acceptable practice.
The Arapahoe Campus Re-teach/Relearn/Reassess Practice is intended to be consistent with the following guidelines:
The teacher is expected to approach students who have not achieved adequate mastery of a standard with a Reteach/Relearn/Reassess plan.
Reassessment plans will include documented efforts of reteaching and relearning and should occur prior to any reassessment.
Reassessment efforts may be limited to specific areas of concern and are not expected or required to reassess all topics covered by the original assessment.
Reassessments do not need to use the same format as the original assessment. In most cases a different assessment format that addresses learning style strengths is preferable.
Reassessment grades should replace original grades so that they are reflective of the actual level of mastery.
Reassessment opportunities should be available to all students. This does not imply that reassessment opportunities are identical for all students.
Opportunities for Reteaching/Relearning/Reassessment are unlimited within the grading year.
The teacher is expected to support students who have not reached mastery by breaking large concepts/projects/skills into smaller portions and assessing each of the smaller portions individually.
4. Equitable grading practices designed to limit the influence of single assessments
The Arapahoe Campus Equitable Grading Practice is intended to be consistent with the following guidelines:
Students are expected to complete all assignments in accordance with the grading practices outlined above.
Teachers are expected to gather evidence to document student learning. Practices surrounding late work and/or reassessment should not be used to prevent the collection of this evidence.
Scores should not be adjusted or modified until reassessment opportunities have been fully utilized.
If reasonable opportunities for the completion of the original assessment AND reasonable opportunities for reassessment have both passed, the lowest equitable score should be entered for that individual assessment. (This would be a 50% on a traditional scale.)
Teachers should limit the impact that a single assessment has on the overall course summary grade.
Single assessments should never count for more than 20% of the overall grade.
Textbooks and Supplementary Materials
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